Main Methods and Techniques Used in Marketing and PR

1. Media Availabilities
This means making yourself available for speaking to the media, for example, if there’s an important issue relating to that may affect your business and you’ve got an opinion on it, you talk to the media. You can also ensure your press release has a strong news angle and targets the right publications and beat reporters.
2. Monthly Columns
Writing monthly columns for a local newsletter or mainstream publication will help increase your visibility and establish your reputation in your area of business and can often serve as the backbone if your marketing strategy.
3. Seminars/Lectures/Networking Events
Speaking at seminars and offering lectures or workshops will also help you expand your professional network, increase your visibility and build your personal brand. Attending networking events will help you connect with prospects. Despite the growth of social networking and virtual communication, building relationships through face-t-face networking is one traditional marketing technique that will never go out of style.
4. Traditional Advertising
Among traditional advertising tools, you could also consider advertising in daily newspapers and speciality publications. Through television advertising you can target niche markets or demographics with special programming. This offers you the advantage of reaching a larger audience at a lower production cost.
5. Online Advertising
With more people spending more time on the web, online advertising offers great opportunities for reaching your target audience. Google AdWords, a pay-per-click advertising programme, allows you to target your ad based on keywords people type in the Google search engine. You pay Google a certain cost per click whenever people click on your ad and visit your website. – And not how often your ad is shown. You can also buy pay-per-click ads on Facebook or LinkedIn, targeting your ad based on demographic criteria such as age, gender, education, profession, geography, etc.
6. Web Marketing
Your website is one of the first impressions people will get of your business, so it’s important to plan carefully what your site is going to look like and include, keeping in mind your target audience. Most organisations, regardless of size, have websites now but most ignore the importance of using search engine optimisation (SEO) to ensure that their site is easily found when people look for them online. Using on-page and off-page SEO techniques, you can improve the volume or quality of traffic to your site from search engines; the higher the site ranks in search results, the more traffic it usually receives from search engines.
7. Social Media Marketing
Before the growth of social media, most businesses needed to either buy expensive advertising or receive media coverage to attract the attention of their customers. Using social media tools like blogs, Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn, you can easily network and connect directly with potential clients and deliver information about your services. Social media can also be used for driving people back to your website by posting your latest events, company news or even informative articles of issues that may serve as a useful resource for your target audience. 
8. Newsletters
Newsletters, whether printed or sent through email, can be useful for delivering relevant information to your target audience and keeping them updated on your organization’s services or recent events. E-newsletters are especially helpful for generating leads through email programmes; you can identify and track recipients who click on your e-newsletter. To convert these leads into prospects, you can then follow up with them by sending a brochure and making a follow-up phone call about your services.
9. Booklets
Creating a printed booklet or an e-book with informative articles or whitepapers on relevant issues that may be of interest and of use to your target audience is a great way to start engaging with your prospects and create an image of being a leader in your field. E-books can easily sent in a PDF through e-mail or social media. You can also make them available for download on your web site through a contact form that your prospects can fill. This will allow you to follow up with them and keep them informed about your services.
10. Direct Mail and D-Cards
Direct mail can be quite effective for localised businesses, especially if you purchase highly targeted mailing lists. If you are targeting a specific demographic profile in a particular geographic are, consider direct mail. Another recommended option for direct mail is to use detached address cards or D-cards with your advertisement printed at the back. D-Cards can be distributed through weekly publications in your local area at a very low cost. If you wan to saturate a zip code, and you are not concerned that all the residents will receive your mailer, you can use D-cards.

Creative Media Industries – Film

There are nine types of industries in media, they are: Film, Television, Music, Print, Computer Games, Advertising and Marketing, Interactive, Press and Radio. The film industry and companies like Columbia Pictures and Warner Bros. Pictures make products such as films and TV shows. Warner Bros. makes some of the best-known films and shows including Friends, Batman, Superman and Inception.

Back in 1983, around 50 corporations controlled the vast majority of all news media in the United States, however, nowadays that had been condensed to just six. In the media industry there is what’s known as “The Big Six”. This means that these six big corporations that collectively control the U.S. media. The “Six” are:

Time Warner, Walt Disney, Viacom, News Corp., BS Corporation and NBC Universal.

These six corporations all have daughter companies, for example, Disney is the parent company of ABC, ESPN, Pixar and Lucasfilm. These sister and daughter companies are how the big six own so much, they have many large companies under their name.

Legal and ethical restraints in media are there to protect people’s names and reputations. For example:

Libel (When an unjustified attack is written, published or broadcast) is there to protect people’s names and reputations, as is slander (a verbal defamation). Without these laws, people could print and broadcast what they like about a person, be it true or not, potentially ruining their reputation, career and life.  There are also other rules the media industry must abide by, such as Watershed, which stops inappropriate content being broadcast too early in the day and Copyright, which stops people from taking the idea of others or Discrimination which makes it illegal to discriminate against anyone on grounds of sex, age, disability or ethnic origin.

When it comes to media regulation, it is largely related to Legal and Ethical restrains, but also goes into privacy. For example, the main targets of media regulation are the press, radio, and television, but does also include film, music, cable, satellite, storage and distribution technology (tapes, discs, etc), the internet, mobile phones, etc.

It basically relates to privacy. For example, the phone hackings by the News of the World would come under this section. It also relates to censorship. In that you can’t publish certain things. An example of this would be when someone requests “facts” from the president of the United States and, a lot of the time, much of the information is blacked out.

The media career ladder is an interesting one to climb. For example, most career ladders care about qualifications, for example, if you went into business with no qualifications you would probably start at the bottom and have to work your way up, but if you have a University degree you could probably start with a higher up job. But in the media industry it varies. So, say you wanted to be in the news industry, they would take note of qualifications, and possibly start you off higher up if you had the qualifications. But you could still start as someone who delivers the post and work your way up. But film is more about who and what you know. A university degree might help, not the qualification itself (though it might get you noticed) but the knowledge you’d gain from the course. But if you happen to be good friends with a well-established director but have no qualifications, that could still be extremely helpful, more so than a University graduate who doesn’t know anyone. Even if you have a mass amount of qualifications and went into film you could still start as a runner. However, if you’ve never worked behind the camera but are a well established actor, then it could still be quite easy to find a job as a director, even if you have to write the script yourself, which is another point. Hard as it may be to get a job in the industry, it could, arguably, be easier for a director than an actor (ignoring luck and chance) as actors sometimes have to go on countless auditions before they get a job, whereas a director could write the film themselves and producing and make they’re own work, even if it’s just to get a name an they don’t actually make a profit from it. They could also start a YouTube channel and make a name as a decent filmmaker on their and use that as a CV when trying to get bigger and better jobs (though this could also apply to actors to an extent too)

Examples of Logos

The good.

The FedEx Logo is good as it is well known and easy to remember, also, in between the E and X of ‘Ex’ is a cleverly hidden arrow, which also indicates what they do, delivery.

The Apple Logo is an apple, thus is relevant to the company name. It is also sleek and silver, reflecting what their products are like, sleek, quick and cool.

The Pixar Logo is memorable and well known. It is also a computer animation, which is exactly what the company does, so it is also clever.

The Bad.

The NEW Starbucks Logo is the same as their old, well-known logo, but no longer bares their name, so people who don’t recognise the logo, don’t know what it belongs to.

The NEW Animal Planet is not as good as their old one, it is not as well known or memorable, it doesn’t show off what the channel does AND its sideways ‘M’ just looks messy.

The NEW GAP Logo is boring. Sure, GAP’s logo has never been anything special, eye-catching or fun, but it was recognisable. The new one is just as boring, if not more so and, as it’s new, people don’t recognise it as much as the old one.


What is Marketing?

Marketing is defined as the process of determining the needs and ants of consumers and being able to deliver products that satisfy those needs and wants. Marketing includes all of the activities necessary to move a product from the producer to the consumer.

Marketing can be thought of as a bridge from producer to consumer, this means that it is what connects the two, it can be thought of in this way because marketing is kind of the producer talking to the consumer, so it’s keeping them connected, it’s like a bridge.

The nine functions of marketing:

1. Buying

2. Selling

3. Financing

4. Storage

5. Transportation

6. Processing

7. Risk-Taking

8. Market Information

9. Grading and Standardising

The Four Utilities of Marketing:

1. Form Utility. e.g. Sand being processed into glass.

2. Place Utility. e.g. Flight can be used to move products.

3. Possession Utility e.g. A Deed to a house.

4. Time Utility. e.g. Freezers.


Product Name: Playstation 3.

Product Use: Entertainment.

Describe the typical consumers of the product: Gamers.

Raw Materials Used to Make the Product: Plastic, Metal.

How is the product processed? 1.blueprint designing programmed 3.designing the hardware 4.installing the hardware. 5.making the frames 6. installing the hardware into frame 6.designing and calibrating controller with the system 7.check

How is the Product Transported? Various, i.e. Truck, plane, etc.

Where is it Sold? Game shops, electrical shops, some supermarkets.

How is the Product Promoted and Advertised? TV, Print, Internet.

How Much Does the Product Cost? Average – £250

Other Activities That Are Part of the Marketing Process: Buying, selling, financing, storage, risk-taking, market information, grading and standardising.